She asked herself over and over. “How can a man beat you half to death one day and say he lovse you the next?”This book will take YOU on an emotional roller coaster ride, a ride Josie Harris stayed on until she gained her wings on March 09, 2020. Imagine emotions in a state of constant chaos for most of your life? After decades of mental and physical abuse, Josie Harris at age 40 can finally have her side of the story heard. Josie fell in love with a man she thought loved her but over the years she realized he wasn’t capable of loving her the same way. For years, the father of her three children, and the man she was so in love with inflicted so much pain upon her causing heartache, loneliness, instability and so much more.Did you know Females ages 18 to 35 generally experience the highest rates of intimate partner domestic violence? Never judge a book by its cover; judge the book by the stories.
Apple usually waits until the fall to introduce its latest iPhones, but thanks to leaks and rumors, we’re getting a pretty good idea of what to expect from the iPhone 12 in advance of that phone’s launch later this year. And it sounds like we’ve got plenty to look forward to with this year’s batch of phones.
IPHONE 12: WHAT TO EXPECT
• Release date: Fall 2020
•Models: iPhone 12 (5.4 inches), iPhone 12 Max (6.1 inches), iPhone 12 Pro (6.1 inches), iPhone 12 Pro Max (6.7 inches)
• Prices: $649 (iPhone 12), $749 (iPhone 12 Max), $999 (iPhone 12 Pro), $1,099 (iPhone 12 Pro Max)
• Processor: A14 (all models)
• Screens: OLED (all models)
• Other features: 5G compatibility, LiDAR sensor on the iPhone 12 Pro, 120Hz refresh rate on iPhone 12 Pro display
That’s right — phones. The iPhone 12 is expected to come in four models: the 5.4-inch iPhone 12; 6.1-inch iPhone 12 Max; 6.1-inch iPhone 12 Pro; and 6.7-inch iPhone 12 Pro Max. All of the new iPhone 12 devices should feature OLED displays and 5G connectivity, but the iPhone 12 Pro series would steep up to a 120Hz refresh’s rate and three rear cameras plus a LiDAR sensor.
We could also see a new design for Apple’s phones, one that hearkens back to the iPhone 5’s flat edges and more squared off look. And there should be a smaller notch, too.
The iPhone 12 isn’t expected until the fall — and even then, there’s some question as to when the phone might go on sale — but here’s everything we know so far about Apple’s next smartphones.
Latest iPhone 12 news (updated June 11)
- A swath of iPhone 12 model numbers just leaked in a regulatory filing on the Eurasian Economic Commission’s database.
- A new report on the iPhone 12 says that mass production will start in July, but one prominent leaker has shot that down.
- Renders based on case retailer mock-ups show off the iPhone 12’s potential design. A concept video based on iPhone 12 Pro rumors also caught our eye.
- An Apple patent has surfaced that would allow an iPhone to stitch together multiple selfies from different iPhones, a feature that could debut on the iPhone 12.
Even if the iPhone 12 does arrive in September, the most premium model could be held back. According to an April 2020 supply chain report, the standard iPhone 12 series will enter mass production in September, while the rumored iPhone 12 Pro Max will follow suit in October.
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- China’s factory output posts sharpest plunge in three decades in Jan-Feb.
- Unprecedented Federal Reserve move fails to calm markets.
- US share trading halted; market falls 9% on Monday.
- Spain, France follow Italy in imposing severe restrictions on movement.
- UNCTAD warns of a $1 trillion cost to the world economy.
- Cryptocurrencies plunge.
- Italy’s entire population under quarantine measures.
- Some key industries in Wuhan are told they can resume work.
Have you read?
- Coronavirus and flu: Why COVID-19 poses more of a threat
- ‘Over-reacting is better than non-reacting’ – academics around the world share thoughts on coronavirus
- CDC advises against gatherings of 50 or more – Today’s COVID-19 updates and analysis
As the world grapples with the coronavirus, the economic impact is mounting – with the OECD warning the virus presents the biggest danger to the global economy since the 2008 financial crisis.
UNCTAD, the UN trade agency, warned of a slowdown of global growth to under 2% this year, effectively wiping $1 trillion off the value of the world economy.
A poll of economists by the London School of Economics found 51% believed the world faces a major recession, even if COVID-19 kills no more people than seasonal flu. Only 5% said they did not think it would.
There are now some 170,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally, the new coronavirus that emerged in Wuhan, China, in December and is spreading around the world.
Businesses are dealing with lost revenue and disrupted supply chains due to China’s factory shutdowns. Weeks after China imposed travel restrictions on million of its people, Italy placed quarantine measures on its entire population, with France and Spain imposing similar measures and many other European countries restricting movement and business activity. On 11 March, some key industries in Wuhan were told they can resume, a day after Chinese President Xi Jinping visited the city for the first time since the outbreak began.
Here are a few ways the outbreak is sending ripples around the world.
China is the world’s second-largest economy and leading trading nation, so economic fallout from COVID-19 also threatens global growth.
Economists polled by Reuters on March 3-5 said the outbreak likely halved China’s economic growth in the current quarter compared with the previous three months.
The poll of more than 40 economists, based both in and outside mainland China, forecast growth to fall to a median of 3.5% this quarter from 6.0% in the fourth quarter of 2019, a full percentage point lower than predicted in a Feb. 14 poll.
“If you’re in a city which has been basically closed down or put (under) virtual house arrest, you’re not going to go out to the streets, you can’t go to the cinema, the restaurants…with all those sorts of things, economic activity will be substantially negatively affected,” said Rob Carnell, head of Asia-Pacific research at ING.
The Chinese economy is likely to be hit further by reduced global demand for its products due to the effect of the outbreak on economies around the world.
Data released on 16 March showed China’s factory production plunged at the sharpest pace in three decades in the first two months of the year – something which could mean an even greater economic slowdown than predicted in that poll.
“Judging by the data, the shock to China’s economic activity from the coronavirus epidemic is greater than the (2008) global financial crisis,” said Zhang Yi, chief economist at Zhonghai Shengrong Capital Management.
“These data suggest a small contraction in the first-quarter economy is a high probability event. Government policies would need to be focused on preventing large-scale bankruptcies and unemployment.”
Falling oil, stock prices; central bank action fails to calm markets
To combat the economic fallout, the US Federal Reserve on 15 March cut its key interest rate to near zero.
But the move, coordinated with central banks in Japan, Australia and New Zealand in a joint-effort not seen since the 2008 financial crisis, failed to shore up global investor sentiment, with oil prices dipping below $30 a barrel on 16 March, and a 9% slump in share values when Wall Street opened.
China is the world’s biggest oil importer. With coronavirus hitting manufacturing and travel, the Internationa Energy Agency (IEA) predicted the first drop in global oil demand in a decade.
“Covid-19 (coronavirus) has spread beyond China and our 2020 base case global oil demand forecast is cut by 1.1 mb/d. For the first time since 2009, demand is expected to fall year-on-year, by 90 kb/d,” the IEA said in its monthly report for March 2020.
On 9 March, oil prices lost as much as a third of their value – the biggest daily rout since the 1991 Gulf War, as Saudi Arabia and Russia signaled they would hike output in a market already awash with crude, after their three-year supply pact collapsed.
“A WHO declaration of global emergency and U.S.-EU traffic ban is dampening the global energy demand outlook, in conjunction with an intensified price war between Saudi and Russia,” Margaret Yang, market analyst at CMC Markets in Singapore, told Reuters.
“Bears are dominating the oil market and there might be more downside before a bottom can be reached.”
Anyone hoping cryptocurrencies might prove a safe haven was disappointed. Bitcoin lost more than 30% of its value in the five days to 12 March, Reuters reported, outpacing losses for stocks and oil.
“We’ve seen de-risking across all asset markets,” said Jamie Farquhar, portfolio manager at London-based crypto firm NKB. “Bitcoin is certainly not immune to that.”
Impact on air travel
On 5 March – before the US travel ban was announced – the International Air Transport Association (IATA) predictied the COVID-19 outbreak could cost airlines $113 billion in lost revenue as fewer people take flights.
“The industry remains very fragile,” Brian Pearce, the IATA’s chief economist, told the Associated Press. “There are lots of airlines that have got relatively narrow profit margins and lots of debt and this could send some into a very difficult situation.”
On March 16, British Airways said it would cut flying capacity by at least 75% in April and May. Other UK airlines, including Virgin Atlantic and easyJet also announced drastic cuts.
Disruption to commerce
The shortage of products and parts from China is affecting companies around the world, as factories delayed opening after the Lunar New Year and workers stayed home to help reduce the spread of the virus.
Apple’s manufacturing partner in China, Foxconn, is facing a production delay. Some carmakers including Nissan and Hyundai temporarily closed factories outside China because they couldn’t get parts.
The pharmaceutical industry is also bracing for disruption to global production.
Many trade shows, cultural and sporting events across the world have been cancelled or postponed.
The travel and tourism industries were hit early on by economic disruption from the outbreak.
Besides the impact on airlines, the UN’s International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) forecasts that Japan could lose $1.29 billion of tourism revenue in the first quarter due to the drop in Chinese travellers, while Thailand could lose $1.15 billion.
- Apple’s iPhone 12 will feature a major redesign, marking the first time in three years that Apple will release a new iPhone model with an updated design.
- Both the iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro models Apple releases in 2020 will feature a new look with flat metal edges reminiscent of the iPhone 5’s beloved design.
- The higher-end iPhone 12 Pro and iPhone 12 Pro Max are expected to be made available in a totally new color that leaked recently, and now a new video imagines Apple’s upcoming new iPhone 12 Pro in the stunning new color.
When it comes to Apple’s iPhone 12 release and its iPhone 9 release that was expected in the coming weeks, everything seems to be up in the air right now. A report just yesterday suggested that Apple will completely cancel its iPhone 9 release next month not because of manufacturing issues, but because the company doesn’t want to encourage people to gather en masse at its stores in light of the novel corona virus outbreak. As a reminder, the iPhone 9 is also referred to as “iPhone SE 2,” and it’s expected to be a lower-cost iPhone starting at $399 that uses the iPhone 8’s design with updated specs in line with the iPhone 11.
As far as Apple’s new flagship iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro are concerned, things are even more unclear right now. Numerous reports suggest that the COVID-19 outbreak will force Apple to delay its iPhone 12 release until October or possibly November, though the company still might announce the phones in September. That doesn’t sound too terrible, but there’s one slight problem: many experts believe that the corona virus outbreak will continue to get worse and worse in the coming months. If it does, there’s no telling what might happen to Apple’s plans for the iPhone 12. As of Thursday morning, there are more than 120,000 confirmed cases of the COVID-19 corona virus and the spread isn’t expected to slow down anytime soon. Regardless of when Apple finally releases its iPhone 12 lineup, however, we already know plenty about the new design and features thanks to numerous leaks from reliable sources. Now, a new video helps visualize everything we’ve heard, and it also shows Apple’s new iPhone 12 Pro in the stunning new color that leaked earlier this year.
Most of what we know so far about Apple’s upcoming iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro series smartphones comes from TF International Securities analyst Ming-Chi Kuo. He has been the most prolific and most accurate Apple insider for years, and he’s had plenty to say about the iPhone 12 series since even before the iPhone 11 was released.
According to Kuo’s reporting, Apple will release not three but four new flagship models this year. Two will be iPhone 12 models with different screen sizes, and then there will be a 6.1-inch iPhone 12 Pro and a 6.7-inch iPhone 12 Pro Max. All four phones will apparently feature OLED screens and 5G support, while the iPhone 12 Pro phones will get upgraded triple-lens rear camera systems with a new time of flight (ToF) sensor.
A more recent iPhone 12 leak from a new source that has been active recently suggests that Apple’s upcoming new iPhone 12 models will get an even bigger camera upgrade than we thought. That leak also outlined some alleged new features and upgrades supposedly coming to Apple’s new iPhones, but the same source also had some interesting iPhone 12 tidbits to share back in January.
In the earlier leak, Max Weinbach claimed that Apple is planning to release the iPhone 12 Pro in an exciting new color that will replace Midnight Green in Apple’s current iPhone 11 Pro lineup. The new color is supposedly called Midnight Blue, and it will reportedly be a deep navy blue color that will be made available alongside Space Gray, Silver, and Gold. Deep navy blue sounds far more appealing than the dark green color that’s currently available, and now a new video created by YouTube channel Technizo attempts to visualize the iPhone 12 Pro in the stunning new color.
The majority of the video shows Apple’s leaked iPhone 12 Pro design in Space Gray, and it’s pretty close to what we expect to see later this year when Apple officially takes the wraps off of the iPhone 12 Pro. The one big mistake with this video is the same mistake we’ve seen in countless other iPhone 12 Pro visualizations — Apple’s new Pro models will have a triple-lens rear camera with an additional small ToF sensor added in. These renders, on the other hand, show a quad-lens camera.
The Midnight Blue iPhone 12 Pro makes its first appearance around the 53-second mark, and the hue shown in the video looks like it could indeed be pretty close to the real thing. We won’t know for certain until Apple unveils the iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro this coming September, but you can check out the video below to tide you over in the meantime.
On this website you can find information and guidance from WHO regarding the current outbreak of corona-virus disease (COVID-19) that was first reported from Wuhan, China, on 31 December 2019. Please visit this page for daily updates.
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TO: Project Team
FROM: Project Officer
SUBJECT: RECOMMANDATION COST OF A PROJECT ON SCHOOL WALLS
There is low focus on education because of security reasons. Many of Government schools exist that have broken walls and not build yet. As you all know that our company is interested to get the project of buildings of wall of school. This project will help to provide the security to the children of schools. Initially, our company will establish walls of 20 schools in Vehari area.
Build cost of walls of one school will be 5 lacks and build cost of walls of twenty schools will be 10 Million. Time required for this project will be 2 Months.
To finalize the project, a meeting will be held on 06-04-2016 at 1:00 pm in my office. Headmasters of those twenty schools will also participate in the meeting. Kindly ensure your participation in the meeting.
“English spelling,” says R.L. Trask, “is notoriously complex, irregular, and eccentric, more so than in almost any other written language” (Mind the Gaffe!, 2006).
- “Spelling is not a reliable index of intelligence. . . . Many intelligent people struggle with English spelling, while others will find it comparatively easy to master. Learning to spell correctly requires remembering numerous unusual and peculiar spelling forms. Some people are just better at this form of rote learning than others. . . .
“One of the reasons why English spelling is so unpredictable is because its vocabulary consists of many words derived from other languages, which have been adopted with their original spellings intact. Understanding the origins of these words and the languages they have come from will help with spelling them.”
- Standardization of English Spelling
“. The standardization of English spelling began in the 16th century, and although it is unclear at exactly what point our spelling became set, what is certain is that ever since it happened, people have complained that the rules of spelling, such as they are, just don’t make sense.”
- American Spelling and British Spelling
“George Bernard Shaw once defined the British and Americans as two peoples separated by a common language. Not just in accent and vocabulary but in spelling, too, this is true.
“Like the spelling of ‘honor’ versus ‘honour’ and ‘defense’ versus ‘defence,’ the use of one L versus two in certain positions in words is a sure sign of American English. Classic examples include American ‘traveled,’ ‘jewelry,’ and ‘color’ versus British and Common wealth ‘travelled,’ ‘jewellery,’ and ‘colour.’
- Reading and Spelling
“There is no necessary link . . . between reading and spelling: there are many people who have no difficulty in reading, but who have a major persistent handicap in spelling–this may be as many as 2% of the population
Everyone who has difficulty with spelling words correctly can derive some comfort from knowing that some very good writers have been notoriously bad spellers. It’s also comforting to bad spellers to know that this business of spelling seems to have little to do with intelligence. It has more to do with how we remember things. Some people, once they’ve seen a word spelled correctly, will never misspell that word again. Those are the people who, if you ask them how to spell a word, will first say, “Wait a second. Let me write it down.” If you are not a strong visual learner, but learn in other ways, you will have to learn some other tricks to become a strong speller.
The following suggestions about spelling are only that—suggestions. Spelling, like vocabulary building, is ultimately a personal matter, and only a planned and sustained effort to improve spelling will have the desired results.
Writing with modern word-processors has changed the game of spelling somewhat, but not entirely. Spell-checkers are capable of discovering misspelled words for us — sometimes even as we write them — and most of them will suggest alternative spellings. Very good spell-checkers are even capable of asking whether we’ve confused a correctly spelled word with another word (e.g., we’ve used the word “they’re,” but do we really mean “their”?). Studies show, however, that papers written with the help of a spell-checker are only slightly better than papers written without a word-processor. The reason seems to be that a word-processor makes our text look so professional that we’re apt to overlook misspelled words. Never blame a spell-checker for failing to catch a misspelled word in your paper. That is your responsibility! Perhaps the best we can say about spell-checkers is that they’ve taken away another excuse for bad spelling.
Using the Dictionary
For the purposes of checking your spelling, however, a small pocket dictionary will help us. In fact, bookstores will often sell dictionaries that have nothing but spelling, and those can be very efficient, indeed, for this purpose. Small but powerful (and rather expensive) digital dictionaries are also available, and if they make looking up words more fun and if you have the money lying around to buy one, they can be a good investment. The important thing about owning any kind of dictionary, though, is that you must have it immediately at hand when you are writing.
Mnemonics (Now there’s a toughie to spell! It’s pronounced as if that initial m didn’t exist.) Are little memory devices you can use to remember how to spell words. Geography students will remember that George Eliot’s Old Grandfather Rode A Pig Home Yesterday. Some mnemonics seem more difficult to remember than the spelling they’re supposed to serve.
Coming up with mnemonics to help you remember things are a device you probably use in other studies all the time. Extend the habit into your personal mission to improve spelling. Be as inventive as you wish and have fun with the idea. It will pay off in the long run. For example sq3r
Homonyms and Plurals
Homonyms are words that sound alike or nearly alike but have different meanings and different spellings: affect-effect, -their-there, expect accept the list goes on and on.
Creating plurals in English is usually quite simple: just add s to the end of the word. Sometimes, however, it isn’t that easy and the rules can be a bit perplexing. For example wife wives man men and so on
Rule #1: “I before E except after C”;
This rule, designed to help us remember how to spell words such as receive and chief, seems so promising in its simplicity at first.
- achieve, believe, brief, grief, thief, friend, grieve, chief, priest
- conceive, deceive, perceive, receipt, receive,
This rule is relatively simple and worth remembering.
Rule #2: “Dropping Final E”
When adding an ending to a word that ends with a silent e, drop the final e if the ending begins with a vowel:
However, if the ending begins with a consonant, keep the final e:
Rule #3: “Dropping Final Y”
When adding an ending to a word that ends with y, change the y to i when it is preceded by a consonant.
- supply becomes supplies
- worry becomes worried
- merry becomes merrier
This does not apply to the ending -ing, however.
Nor does it apply when the final y is preceded by a vowel.
Working on Your Spelling
Improving your spelling skills is largely a matter of personal commitment: looking up a word you’re not sure of, keeping the dictionary at hand, keeping a list of words you know you have trouble with. From this list, you should compile your own list of words that look odd to you or aren’t spelled the way you would spell them. Look up their definitions and origins and use them in sentences. Carry around the list and review it from time to time until the proper spelling occurs naturally to you.
American and British Spelling of Words
Writers who grow up in England, Canada, or any place where spelling habits conform to British preferences will be perplexed when the word colour comes back from an American instructor with a slash mark through the u. When Noah Webster started putting his dictionary together, he thought it would be a good idea to simplify some English spelling and that -our was one ending he thought we Americans could do without. Standard American spelling, ever since then, has been sometimes different from British, and it extends to other words as well. A good dictionary, even a good American dictionary, should account for these differences. Instructors should also be equipped to account for them, if not to allow for them.
While discussions surrounding the correct spelling of words can generally be cleared up by checking their spelling at Your Dictionary., many people find themselves confused regarding the difference between American and British spellings.
Common Differences between American and British Spelling
Although the differences between American and British spellings are often subtle, they are still significant. For example (American spelling – British spelling):
- analyze – analyse
- apologize – apologise
- behavior – behaviour
- canceling – cancelling
- center – centre
- check – cheque
- color – colour
- encyclopedia – encyclopaedia
- favorite – favourite
- fiber – fibre
- fulfill – fulfil
- gray – grey
- humor – humour
- labor – labour
- license – licence
- jewelry – jewellery
- theater – theatre
To further complicate matters, some words have a slightly different meaning in American and British English. For example (American word – English word):
- pacifier – dummy
- lawyer – solicitor
- period – full stop
- pharmacist – chemist
- rent – hire
- soccer – football
- cookie – biscuit
- eraser – rubber
Spelling Rules to Remember
If you must frequently work with both American and British spellings, you may find it helpful to keep in mind these spelling rules:
- Words ending in RE in British English have been changed to ER in American English. For example centre in British and center in American..
- Words ending in OUR in British English have been changed to OR in American English .for example labor in American English and labour in British English
- Words ending in IOUR in British English have been changed to IOR in American English. For example behaviour in British English and behavior in American English.
- Many words ending in YSE or ISE in British English have been changed to YZE or IZE in American English, although there are exceptions. Fore example realize in American English and realize in British English.
Which Spelling is Correct?
Technically, both American and British spellings are correct. However, American spellings are gaining an advantage in many circumstances because Microsoft Word is set to default its spell check feature to American spellings. Thus, all British spellings will appear as incorrect when using this program.
If you are a student preparing a research paper, ask your teacher which spelling he or she prefers. If your instructor has no preference, simply choose either American or British spellings and be consistent throughout the piece.
The importance of women education are briefly summarized below:
Economic development and prosperity: Education will empower women to come forward and contribute towards the development and prosperity of the country.
Economic empowerment: So long as women remain backward and economically dependent on men, the helpless condition of them cannot be changed. Economic empowerment and independence will only come through proper education and employment of women.
Improved life: In our country, girls wait for marriage and after marriage they lost their entities. Their rights are trodden down, sometimes situation becomes insulting. If we do not take a broad outlook in the field of female education, the situation will be worse.
Dignity and honor: Educated women are now looked upon with dignity and honor. They become a source of inspiration for millions of young girls who make them their role-models.
Justice: Educated women are more informed of their rights for justice. It would eventually lead to decline in instances of violence and injustice against women such as dowry, forced-prostitution, child-marriage, female foeticide, etc.
Choice to choose a profession of her choice: Educated women can prove be highly successful in the fields of life. A girl-child should get equal opportunity for education, so that, she can plan to become a successful doctors, engineers, nurses, air-hostesses, cook, or choose a profession of her choice.
Alleviate poverty: Women education is a pre-requisite to alleviate poverty. Women need to take equal burden of the massive task of eliminating poverty. This would demand massive contribution from educated women. There cannot be much social and economic changes unless girls and women are given their rights for education.
Conclusion: Until the middle of nineteenth century, girls and women were educated only for traditional household works. Now, the society is witnessing changes in the role-status of women. There is greater emphasis on education girls and women in the same way as we educate boys and men. The modern day parents want to fulfill the aspiration of their children without gender parity.
The educated women should insist on exercising their civil, social, political and economic rights. This will help improve the overall condition of women in the society. We can hope for better days while all women of our country will be enlightened and educated.
|Essay Writing: Types of Essays|
An essay is a short piece of writing that discusses, describes or analyses a topic. It can discuss a subject directly or indirectly, seriously or humorously. It can describe personal opinions, or just report information. An essay can be written from any perspective, but are most commonly written in the first person (I), or third person (subjects that can be substituted with the he, she, it, or they pronouns).
There are many different kinds of essays. The following are some of the most common ones:
The function of the expository essay is to explain something to the reader by giving directions or instructions, or to acquaint your reader with knowledge about how to complete a task or how something is done. You are demonstrating your own knowledge and explaining with facts, not your opinion. It is very important that your tone be reasonable and that your presentation be factual and believable.
Compare and Contrast
The essay could be an unbiased discussion, or an attempt to convince the reader of the benefits of one thing, person, or concept. It could also be written simply to entertain the reader, or to arrive at an insight into human nature. The essay could discuss both similarities and differences, or it could just focus on one or the other. A comparison essay usually discusses the similarities between two things, while the contrast essay discusses the differences.
Cause and Effect
The cause/effect essay explains why or how some event happened, and what resulted from the event. This essay is a study of the relationship between two or more events or experiences. The essay could discuss both causes and effects, or it could simply address one or the other. A cause essay usually discusses the reasons why something happened. An effect essay discusses what happens after a specific event or circumstance. Sources are often required in a cause/effect paper, and your choice of these sources is important as they reflect on the validity of your argument.
An argumentative essay is one that attempts to persuade the reader to the writer’s point of view. The writer can either be serious or funny, but always tries to convince the reader of the validity of his or her opinion. The essay may argue openly, or it may attempt to subtly persuade the reader by using irony or sarcasm. Your approach is to take a stand on an issue and use evidence to back up your stance, not to explore an unresolved topic.
You must choose a side, make a case for it, consider and refute alternative arguments, and prove to the undecided reader that the opinion it presents is the best one. You must be aware of other sides and be fair to them; dismissing them completely will weaken your own argument. It is best to take a side that you believe in, preferably with the most supporting evidence. It can often be educational to adopt a different position from what you might normally choose (debating requires this kind of flexibility).
Written mainly for enjoyment. This is not to say that it cannot be informative or persuasive; however, it is less a formal statement than a relaxed expression of opinion, observation, humour or pleasure. A good informal essay has a relaxed style but retains a strong structure, though that structure may be less rigid than in a formal paper.
The informal essay tends to be more personal than the formal, even though both may express subjective opinions. In a formal essay the writer is a silent presence behind the words, while in an informal essay the writer is speaking directly to the reader in a conversational style. If you are writing informally, try to maintain a sense of your own personality. Do not worry about sounding academic, but avoid sloppiness.
This type of essay can be either formal or informal, depending on the context. Its goal is to evaluate a work such as an article or book. Your personal, informed, opinion plays a significant role in the process. However, a certain objective standard needs to be maintained and, as in an argumentative essay, your assertions need to be proved.
The formality of the review will be determined by how much of the essay is analysis, how much is summary and how much is your reaction to the work you are reviewing. A more formal review will not only discuss the work on its own merits but also place it in context. Newspapers and popular magazines often review in terms of finance: is this CD or film worth spending your money on? Critical journals will attempt to determine whether a new novel or play has achieved something new and significant. A good review will discuss both the qualities and the importance of a given work.
The research essay leads you into the works of others and asks you to compare their thoughts with your own. Writing a research paper involves going to source material and synthesising what you learn from it with your own ideas. You must find texts on the subject and use them to support the topic you have been given to explore. Because it is easy to become lost in a wilderness of source material, you must take particular care to narrow your topic. A research paper should demonstrate what you have learned, but it should also show that you have a perspective of your own on the subject.
The greatest danger inherent in the research essay is plagiarism. If your paper consists of a string of quotations or paraphrases with little input of your own, you are not synthesising but copying, and you should expect a low grade. If any of the borrowings are unacknowledged, you are plagiarising, and the penalties can be severe.
In the literary essay, you are exploring the meaning and construction of a piece of literature. This task is more complicated than reviewing, though the two are similarly evaluative. In a review you are discussing the overall effect and validity of written work, while in a literary essay you are paying more attention to specifics. A literary essay focuses on such elements as structure, character, theme, style, tone and subtext. You are taking a piece of writing and trying to discover how and why it is put together the way it is. You must adopt a viewpoint on the work in question and show how the details of the work support your viewpoint.
A literary essay may be your own interpretation, based only on your reading of the piece, or it may be a mixture of your opinions and references to the criticism of others, much like a research paper. Again, be wary of plagiarism and of letting the opinions and ‘voices’ of more experienced writers swamp your own response to the work. If you are going to consult the critics, you should reread the literary work you are discussing and make some notes on it based on your own viewpoint before looking at any criticism.
Paradigm Online Writing Assistant http://www.powa.org/ – Online interactive writer’s guide and handbook.
JSU Study Skills Online www.jcu.edu.au/tldinfo/writingskills/essay/ – James Cook University’s Essay Writing site.
The OWL at Purdue http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ – Online Writing Lab: “a stand-alone reference for thousands of writers worldwide”. One of the oldest and most extensive online writing resource sites. Check here for grammar explanations, quizzes, vocabulary exercises and answers to common questions.
Essay Writing: The Essential Guide http://www.theory.org.uk/david/essaywriting.pdf – David Gauntlet, Leeds University Institute of Communication Studies.
Essay Punch http://www.essaypunch.com – Online interactive essay writing tutorial.
Essay Writing Tips http://www2.actden.com/Writ_den/tips/essay/index.htm – WritingDEN.
Advice on Academic Essay Writing http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice – University of Toronto, Canada.
Thinking Critically About World Wide Web Resources http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/college/11605_12337.cfm – UCLA College Library.
Critically Analyzing Information Sources http://www.library.cornell.edu/olinuris/ref/research/skill26.htm – Cornell University Library.
Citing References http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/docs/Citing_Refs.pdf – Harvard referencing style – University of Bournemouth Academic Services.
What is language? System of system.
- Combination of words that convey specific meaning and having specific grammatical arrangement.
- a system for the expression of thoughts, feelings, etc., by the use of spoken sounds or conventional symbols
- Language is a communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols.
Language is used for communication whether it is oral or written.
What is communication???
it a process in which one person can transfer his/her ideas to the other.
It is derive from Latin commūnicāre, meaning “to share”
In communication we need a sender who encodes the message then we need a message and then a receiver who decode the message.
How can we learn language?
- Words (meaningful combination of letters is called word)
- Sentence (meaningful combination of word is called sentence)
Characteristics and Features of Language
Language is, today, an inseparable part of human society. Human civilization has been possible only through language. It is through language only that humanity has come out of the Stone Age and has developed science, art and technology in a big way. Language is a means of communication, it is arbitrary, it is a system of systems. We know that Speech is primary while writing is secondary.
Language is human so it differs from animal communication in several ways. Language can have scores of characteristics but the following are the most important ones: language is arbitrary, productive, creative, systematic, vocalic, social, and conventional. These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. Some of these features may be part of animal communication; yet they do not form part of it in total.
Language is Arbitrary: Language is arbitrary in the sense that there is no inherent relation between the words of a language and their meanings or the ideas conveyed by them. There is no reason why a female adult human being be called a woman in English, aurat in Urdu, Zen in Persian and Femine in French. The choice of a word selected to mean a particular thing or idea is purely arbitrary but once a word is selected for a particular referent, it comes to stay as such. It may be noted that had language not been arbitrary, there would have been only one language in the world.
Language is Social: Language is a set of conventional communicative signals used by humans for communication in a community. Language help us to interact with each other, to co-operate with each other; it is a social institution. Language exists in society; it is a means of nourishing and developing culture and establishing human relations.
Language is Symbolic: Language consists of various sound symbols. These symbols are arbitrarily chosen and conventionally accepted and employed. Words in a language are not mere signs or figures, but symbols of meaning.
Language is Systematic: Although language is symbolic, yet its symbols are arranged in a particular system. All languages have their system of arrangements. Every language is a system of systems. All languages have phonological and grammatical systems, and within a system there are several sub-systems. For example, within the grammatical system we have morphological and syntactic systems, and within these two sub-systems we have systems such as those of plural, of mood, of aspect, of tense, etc.
Language is Vocal: Language is primarily made up of vocal sounds only produced by a physiological articulatory mechanism in the human body. In the beginning, it appeared as vocal sounds only. Writing came much later, as an intelligent attempt to represent vocal sounds. Writing is only the graphic representation of the sounds of the language. So the linguists say that speech is primary.
Language is Productive and Creative: Language has creativity and productivity. The structural elements of human language can be combined to produce new utterances, which neither the speaker nor his hearers may ever have made or heard before any, listener, yet which both sides understand without difficulty. Language changes according to the needs of society.
Language is a system of systems
The study of sounds is called phonology
The study of formation of words is known as morphology.
The study of formation of sentence is known as syntax
The study of meaning of words is known as semantics.
To hear attentively;
Difference between listening and hearing.
Listening is often confused with hearing. While hearing is a biological process that can be scientifically explained, listening is a neurological process.
A linguist distinguishes between hearings and listening, stating, “Hearing is a physiological phenomenon; listening is a psychological act.” So listening can b define as to hear attentively.
Principles of Listening
A good listener will listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left unsaid or only partially said.
Effective listening involves observing body language and noticing inconsistencies between verbal and non-verbal messages.
1. Stop Talking
“If we were supposed to talk more than we listen, we would have two tongues and one ear.” Mark Twain.
Don’t talk, listen. When somebody else is talking listen to what they are saying, do not interrupt, talk over them or finish their sentences for them. Stop, just listen. When the other person has finished talking you may need to clarify to ensure you have received their message accurately.
2. Prepare Yourself to Listen
Relax. Focus on the speaker. Put other things out of mind. The human mind is easily distracted by other thoughts – what’s for lunch, what time do I need to leave to catch my train, is it going to rain – try to put other thoughts out of mind and concentrate on the messages that are being communicated.
3. Put the Speaker at Ease
Help the speaker to feel free to speak. Remember their needs and concerns. Nod or use other gestures or words to encourage them to continue. Maintain eye contact but don’t stare – show you are listening and understanding what is being said.
4. Remove Distractions
Focus on what is being said: shuffle papers, look out the window, pick your fingernails or similar. Avoid unnecessary interruptions. These behaviour disrupt the listening process and send messages to the speaker that you are bored or distracted.
6. Be Patient
A pause, even a long pause, does not necessarily mean that the speaker has finished. Be patient and let the speaker continue in their own time, sometimes it takes time to formulate what to say and how to say it. Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone.
7. Avoid Personal Prejudice
Try to be impartial. Don’t become irritated and don’t let the person’s habits or mannerisms distract you from what they are really saying. Everybody has a different way of speaking – some people are for example more nervous or shy than others, some have regional accents or make excessive arm movements, some people like to pace whilst talking – others like to sit still. Focus on what is being said and try to ignore styles of delivery.
8. Listen to the Tone
Volume and tone both add to what someone is saying. A good speaker will use both volume and tone to their advantage to keep an audience attentive; everybody will use pitch, tone and volume of voice in certain situations – let these help you to understand the emphasis of what is being said.
9. Listen for Ideas – Not Just Words
You need to get the whole picture, not just isolated bits and pieces. Maybe one of the most difficult aspects of listening is the ability to link together pieces of information to reveal the ideas of others. With proper concentration, letting go of distractions, and focus this becomes easier.
10. Wait and Watch for Non-Verbal Communication
Gestures, facial expressions, and eye-movements can all be important. We don’t just listen with our ears but also with our eyes – watch and pick up the additional information being transmitted via non-verbal communication.
- Shorter is better.
- Contribution Based, how you made a difference where you work.
- Since Business Experience is most important, education is generally positioned after experience.
- Highlight job titles, Companies and accomplishments in the job.
- Board positions and association membership might me added.
- Generally no more than 10 years of experience listed. If extremely pertinent 15 years.
- CURRICULUM VITAE:-
- Length is an indication of accomplishment.
- Expertise based. What makes you an expert in your field?
- Education is always at the top of the C.V.
- Highlight teaching experience and positions related to the courses you want to teach. Accomplishments in the job are not as important.
- Publications, research, presentations and organization work can b written in C.V.
- It includes separate lists of teaching experiences, laboratory experiences, field experiences, volunteer work, leadership, or other relevant experiences.
S.S OIL MILLS LIMMITED
Mr. Affan Uddin
Mirza Ghalib Ali
Department of Management sciences
COMSATS University Islamabad
I MIRZA GHALIB ALI Student ID CIIT/FA15-BBA-015/VHR Hereby confirm that the Internship report I have provided is solely my own effort. I did not copy my report partially or completely from any other student or from any other source either against payment or free and I did not provide any plagiarized material in any section of my report. I further confirm that the documents (internship completion certificate & evaluation form) that I have provided are genuine (i.e. not forge/fake) and have been issued by the authorized person in the organization. If I am found guilty of misstating, misleading or concealing the facts about my activities (either academic or non-academic but relevant to this course) at any stage, the university is authorized to take disciplinary action against me according to university policies and regulations.
I hereby also confirm that I have carefully read and understood all the guidelines, rules and regulations
Provided by the course instructor or supervisor. I assure that I will follow the instructions regarding presentation & viva voce and will appear on the scheduled date for presentation & viva voce which will be intimated to me by the Course Instructor or supervisor. In case of any negligence, I shall be held responsible.
Name MIRZA GHALIB ALI
“I dedicated this internship Report to my family, Teachers and to each person who coordinated with me”, because;
- Whatever I am today it’s because of my parents.
- My teachers made me eligible enough to face different challenges and win those challenges.
All praise to Allah Almighty, the most merciful, the most compassionate, who enabled me to complete this task.
I would like to express grateful thanks to our parents and instructors whose outstanding teaching skills, breath of knowledge and counseling assured this project’s clarify and completeness.
I especially want to pay my gratitude to teachers, department of Management Sciences Who has enriched, nurtured and groomed me.
I am also thankful to Staff at SS oil Mills ltd who gave me their precious time and entertained my queries with full concentration, despite constant daily routine office work.
Specially, I would like to thanks Syed Ameer Ali Shah who help me to avail this opportunity.
Sir Ameer Ali (GM) who supervise me during Internship duration.
Sir Adeel Ahmed who serve a lot of time and effect for us to guide and teach us during internship at HR department.
Sir Saif and sir Usman at HRIS department Human resource information system department.
Sir Ahmed At recruitment and selection.
I am highly thankful to the team members of Human Resource department of SS OIL MILLS ltd Vehari Pakistan who are really Co-operated with me and provide me their complete supervision.
S.S. Oil Mills Ltd has an advanced Edible Oil Solvent Extraction Plant, arranged at Vehari. The undertaking consolidates the most recent procedures of handling, oilseed stockpiling and quality control frameworks to guarantee a reliably elevated requirement in its items. The plant’s ability for handling of oilseeds is 90,000 M. Tons per annum.
The Company was consolidated on August 21, 1990 as a Public Limited Company and its offers are cited on the Karachi and Lahore Stock Exchanges. The essential protest of the Company is to bear on the matter of Extracting, Refining, Processing and offer of Edible Oil, Meal and bye items. Report also mirrors the administration capacities in detail that is POLC (Planning, Organizing, leading, and Controlling).
Amid my temporary position I have been turned to various branch of the association is
1) HR and Administration division
2) Finance/Account division
Table of Contents
S.S. Oil Mills Ltd has a modern Edible Oil Solvent Extraction Plant, situated at Vehari. The project incorporates the latest techniques of processing, oilseed storage and quality control systems to ensure a consistently high standard in its products. The plant’s capacity for processing of oilseeds is 90,000 M. Tons per annum.
The Company was incorporated on August 21, 1990 as a Public Limited Company and its shares are quoted on the Karachi and Lahore Stock Exchanges. The principal object of the Company is to carry on the business of Extracting, Refining, Processing and sale of Edible Oil, Meal and bye products.
The area which comes to non-production area consists of offices, lawn and parking facilities. They have their own nursery as well. SS OIL MILLS has very attractive outlook. There are variety of plants and flowers in the lawn and nursery of this industry.
Different sections like stores, printing and packaging (of different sizes) come in production area.
SS OIL MILLS is not incorporated in stock exchange. It has 100 tons capacity of per day but they are currently using 50 percent of their total capacity.
|Company Name||:||S.S. Oil Mills Limited|
|Date of Establishment||:||August 21, 1990|
|National Tax Number||:||0226239-8|
|Office Address||:||2-Tipu Block, Garden Town, Lahore|
|Contact Person||:||Khawaja Nadeem Abbas|
|Seed Crushing Capacity||:||300 M. Tons Per Day|
|Bankers||:||The Bank of Punjab|
|:||Silk Bank Ltd.|
|:||MCB Bank Limited|
|:||Soneri Bank Ltd.|
|:||NIB Bank Ltd.|
|Our Group of Companies||:||Standard Spinning Mills (Pvt.) Limited|
|:||Sikandar Commodities (Pvt.) Limited|
|:||Standard Edible Oil Mills (Pvt.) Limited|
|:||S.S Feeds Mills (Pvt.) Limited|
Towards self-reliance in the production of Edible Oil.
Our mission is to strengthen the economy by curtailing the import of value added edible oil by producing edible oil in the country.
SS OIL MILLS Pvt Ltd is essentially an assembling association. Vegetable ghee and cooking oil is set up as per the guidelines set by Pakistan Standard and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA). This vegetable ghee/cooking oil producing concern is an individual from PVMA (Pakistan Vanaspati maker’s affiliation).
Vegetable ghee is set up from Palm Oil, Palm Olien, Cotton Seed Oil as well as Soya Bean Oil. These fixings are obtained from nearby or global market, handled, arranged and after that bundled Vanaspati ghee as per PSQCA standard available to be purchased.
SS OIL MILLS produces Vegetable Cooking oil and Laundry Soap as a bye product. The major ingredients of Modern ghee are Palm oil, Palm Olien, Cottonseed oil /or Soya bean oil and the major ingredients of Modern Cooking oil are Canola oil, Sunflower oil or potentially Soya bean oil. These things are acquired from national and worldwide market. Handled, arranged and after that bundled by PSQCA standard available to be purchased. In production process the imported oil& national oil is stored in storage. This industry has 8 storage tanks. The total storage capacity of these tanks is 4320 M. ton. Per tank storage capacity is 540 M ton. In Pakistan this industry is the second big storage capacity in ghee &cooking oil industry the first step is the removal of gummy matter such as phospholipids and lipoproteins etc. From raw soybean or cottonseed oil. It is accomplished by exposing the oil to water and adding the phosphoric acid at 50oC. As a result precipitate of gum is generated which is removed from the,
Pre-neutralization process is done to remove FFA from raw oil. Caustic Soda solution proportionate to FFA is mixed with oil. This results in the neutralization of the FFA. The resulting soap stock is allowed to settle and then drained out from the refining kettle. Three hot water washings are given to remove residual soap.
The purpose of oil bleaching is to eliminate its coloring pigments through the adsorption on bleaching earth. Pak earth is used for bleaching because of its excellent adsorption power.
The bleached oil containing pak earth is passed through a series of filter presses to remove the spent earth.
Hydrogenation process, is, the hardening of oil to. Reduce its saturation. At the same time, it improves the stability of the product against its oxidation. Chemically, the degree of un-saturation decreases by passing hydrogen gas through oil in-the presence of nickel catalyst at 150oC.
The vast majority of the putrid substances ‘alongside FFA, sterols, to sticks, soaked and unsaturated hydrocarbons and pesticides are stripped out by infusing dry steam into oil at235 – 245oC. Citrus extract is likewise added to evacuate the scent. After aeration, the freshened up oil is cooled in the decoder to around 85oC. The staying rotten substances are evacuated amid the de-cooling under vacuum. In the wake of cooling the hard oil is gone through a last channel press called “Clean Filter”, which expels UN broke down citrus extract, remaining particles of the pak earth: or nickel impetus, and some other fine debasements. It additionally lessens the power of the last shade of the oil/ghee.
After deodorization process the oil is passed through the final filtration.
Finished Storage Tanks:
Then the oil is store in the finished storage tanks.
In this section the Ghee is charged to the packing section. All the packing is done with the automatic machines.
The Ghee is refined at high temperature so it is most important step of the oil manufacturing. In cold room high compressor is use for cooling.
For providing the good quality banaspati ghee in the market the oil is tests din the laboratory according to the Pakistan standard and quality control.
The current average sale of SS OIL MILLS is 2500-3000 M. Tons per month. Thus the total turnover is 155-185 million rupees per year.
SS OIL MILLS has simple product lines in the field of Vegetable oil, Cooking oil and Laundry soap. Banaspati ghee and cooking oil product lines consist of SS Banaspati, SS cooking oil and SS OIL MILLS Pakwaan oil.
- SS OIL MILL product line / packing range PACKING RANGE PRODUCT BANASPATI
- Tin Packs16 Kg Tin10 Kg Tin5 Kg Tin2.5 Kg Tin Bucket Packs
- 16 Kg B/C10 Kg B/C5 Kg B/C2.5 Kg B/C Carton Packs
- 10 Kg C/N 12 Kg C/N
- 1 Kg X 10Pouches½ X 20 Pouches¼ X 40 Pouches1 Kg X 12 Pouches½ Kg X 24 Pouches¼ X 48 Pouches.
Cooking oil comprises of consumable vegetable oils got from olives, peanuts, and Sun blossoms, to give some examples of the numerous plants that are utilized. Fluid at room temperature, cooking oils are some of the time included amid the planning of prepared sustenance’s. They are likewise used to sear sustenance’s and to make plate of mixed greens dressing. Individuals in numerous locales started to process vegetable oils a large number of years prior, using whatever nourishment stuffs they had close by to get oils for an assortment of cooking purposes. Early people groups figured out how to utilize the sun, a fire, or a broiler to warm sleek plant items until the point that the plants oozed oil that could then be gathered. The Chinese and Japanese delivered soy oil as right on time as 2000 B.C, while southern Europeans had started to create olive oil by 3000 B.C. In Mexico and North America, peanuts and sunflower seeds were broiled and beaten into a glue before being bubbled in water; the oil that rose to the surface was then skimmed off. Africans likewise ground and beat palm bits and coconut meat and after that heated up the subsequent mash, skimming the hot oil off the water. Some oil shave end up accessible as of late, as extraction innovation has progressed. Corn oil originally ended up accessible during the 1960s. Cotton oil, watermelon seed oil, grape seed oil, and others are presently being considered as approaches to make utilization of seeds that were, as of not long ago, thought to be squander.
Some vegetable oils, for example, olive, nut, and some coconut and sunflower oils, are chilly squeezed. This strategy, which involves insignificant handling, creates light, delightful oil appropriate for some cooking needs. Most oil sources, be that as it may, are not appropriate for chilly squeezing, since it would leave numerous bothersome follow components in the oil, making it be odiferous, unpleasant tasting, or dim. These oils experience numerous means past insignificant extraction to deliver dull, clear, and predictable oil.
1. Incoming oil seeds are passed over magnets to remove any trace metal before being de hulled; DE skinned, or otherwise stripped of all extraneous material. In the case of cotton, the ginned seeds must be stripped of their lint as well as de hulled. In the case of corn, the kernel must undergo milling to separate the germ.
2. The stripped seeds or nuts are then ground into coarse meal to provide more surface area to be pressed. Mechanized grooved rollers or hammer mills crush the material to the proper consistency. The meal is then heated to facilitate the extraction of the oil. While the procedure allows more oil to be pressed out, more impurities are also pressed out with the oil, and these must be removed before the oil can be deemed edible.
3. The warmed supper is then nourished constantly into a screw squeeze, which expands the weight dynamically as the dinner goes through an opened barrel. Weight for the most part increments from 68,950 to 20, 6850 kilopascals as the oil is pressed out from the spaces in the barrel, where it very well may be recouped.
4. Soybeans are normally not squeezed at all before dissolvable extraction, since they have moderately little oil, however most oil seeds with more oil are squeezed and dissolvable treated. After the underlying oil has been recouped from the screw press, the oil cake staying in the press is prepared by dissolvable extraction to accomplish the most extreme yield. An unstable hydrocarbon (most ordinarily hexane) breaks up the oil out of the oil cake, or, in other words by refining the light dissolvable out. The Blow Knox Rot cell is utilized to meet the requests of the United States soybean oil industry. In utilizing this machine, drops of feast are sent through wedge-molded cells of a round and hollow vessel. The dissolvable at that point goes through the issue to be gathered at the base. Likewise still being used by a critical number of makers is the Bellman or Hansa-Muhle unit, in which oilseed pieces are put in punctured containers that flow constantly. The dissolvable permeates through the issue which is intermittently dumped and supplanted.
5. 90% of the dissolvable staying in the removed oil just vanishes, and, as it does, it is gathered for reuse. The rest is recovered with the utilization of a stripping section. The oil is bubbled by steam, and the lighter hexane coasts upward. As it consolidates, it, as well, is gathered.
6. The oil is next refined to evacuate shading, scent, and sharpness. Refining comprises of warming the oil to somewhere in the range of 107 and 188 degrees Fahrenheit (40 and 85 degrees Celsius) and blending an antacid substance, for example, sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate with it. Cleanser shapes from the undesired unsaturated fats and the antacid added substance, and it is generally evacuated by rotator. The oil is additionally washed to evacuate hints of cleanser and after that dried.
7. Oils are likewise degummed as of now by treating them with water warmed to somewhere in the range of 188 and 206 degrees Fahrenheit (85 and 95 degrees Celsius), steam, or water with corrosive. The gums, a large portion of which are phosphatides, accelerate out, and the leftovers are expelled by rotator.
8. Oil that will be warmed (for use in cooking) is then blurred by isolating it through more fall’s earth, sanctioned carbon, or started soil’s that ingest certain pigmented material from the oil. By distinction, oil that will encounter refrigeration (since it is normal for plate of blended greens dressing, for example) is winterized immediately chilled and filtered to empty waxes. This technique ensures that the oil won’t for the most part solidify in the fridge.9. At long last, the oil is freshened up. In this procedure, steam is ignored hot oil in a vacuum at somewhere in the range of 440 and 485 degrees Fahrenheit (225 and 250 degrees Celsius), therefore permitting the unpredictable taste and smell parts to distil from the oil. Regularly, citrus extract at. 01 percent is additionally added to oil after freshening up to inactivate follow metals that may advance oxidation inside the oil and subsequently abbreviate its time span of usability.
10. The totally prepared oil is then estimated and filled clean compartments, generally plastic jugs for household oils to be sold in markets, glass bottles for imports or residential oils to be sold in claim to fame stores, or jars for imports (normally olive oil).
- SS Canola oil
- SS sunflower oil
- SS soybean oil
- SS canola meal
- SS sunflower meal
- SS soybean meal
HRM department of SS OIL MILLS Ltd is not doing working as HRM of common organizations because the most Practice of SS OIL MILLS Ltd are complex in nature with other and sub division in HRM is according to as it Requirement and nature of operation.
Purpose is to deliver effective and completive workforce in organization.
- To develops the coordination among all departments in the organization.
- Negotiations, execution and administration of OIL Company Employees and a staff.
- To make the thing and all information regarding to human resource up to Date.
- To run all the operation, practice, polices smoothly it is consider so important.
- Liaison and Co-ordination with fields, refineries, transporters and buyer.
· Human Resource
· Data Acquisition System
· Process & Plants
· Medical Services
During the internship in SS OIL MILLS Ltd we are introduced by the four sub department of Human resource management we are asked to visit and every department for one week in each department. Sub department in HRM in SS OIL MILLS Ltd.
- HRD (human resource development)
- Human resource (selection-section)
Collaborate with different pioneers of the organization in all Human Resource related exercises including hierarchical advancement, preparing, administration improvement, progression arranging, pay designs, documentation, etc. Creating and usage of HR methodologies and activities lined up with the general business system Bolster current and future business needs through the improvement, commitment, inspiration and protection of human capital Create and screen generally speaking HR techniques, frameworks, strategies and systems over the association Extension administration and worker relations by tending to requests, complaints or different issues Deal with the enrollment and choice process Oversee and deal with an execution evaluation framework that drives superior Build up and execute enlistment, determination and pre-business methods as per Company approach. Break down preparing and improvement needs at all levels and facilitate for the structure of projects. Help workers and the administration with vocation arranging and guiding by developing profession way. Create and actualize execution examination programs, progression arranging and labor stock projects for the correct supply of hopefuls. Survey every disciplinary activity and build up a complaint program for fast goals of representative issues. Managing Government Agencies (work division, EOBI, Social Security, and so on.). Build up a yearly division spending plan. Audit all representative mischance reports and give proposals to future deterrent measures. Sort out all representative diversion programs, including Eid Party, picnics, Annual Function and Sports occasion. Persistently screen neighborhood enactment, legitimate choices and labor patterns.
HRIS (human resource information system)
IN this office we get chance with work with Usman Ahmed. He clarified about Human asset data framework. In HRIS office all date is made electronic by utilizing two programming (Oracle) and (FMS) for managing benefits cases was presented as of late a year ago. Profit have diverse module which are utilized in various division of the association however HR module is utilized in HR office. Every one of the PCs are associated with principle server in the office. Its arrangement all kind of information and cases like preparing, advancement, encounter, family data and cases, letters, and joining of the new workers. HRIS works begin by accepting letters from the diverse bureaus of association. HRIS is spine of association so making coordination among the Human asset.
Attendance and leave management system
Each division in the association is in charge of its participation anyway it likewise have electronic access framework. Each representative have exceptional card for enter in the association it is additionally wellspring of overseeing participation in the association.
Training and development department
The purpose training and devolvement to enhance the skill and knowledge of employees to make them effective workers of organization. SS OIL MILLS Ltd department supervisors are responsible for promotion of their staff.
- The primary quality of SS OIL mark is that it is the biggest offering brand in Pakistan.
- Due to upkeep of value, condition and nourishment security SS OIL MILLS Limited five times granted with ISO standard.
- SS OIL MILS Limited is the first to get ISO 22000 guaranteed ghee and cooking oil fabricating in Pakistan
- The main problem is that its packaging is very old. Now these days peoples considered that good packaged brands have good product.
- SS OIL MILL also suffers with image problem. Because of this it is considered as an old brand.
- The company can get more cash by introducing new products because they have large no of market in Pakistan.
- Peoples in the Pakistan are persuaded towards the branded products.
- To gain market in health conscious people the fat free oil is still popular.
- Peoples are switching to brand offering vitamin and cholesterol free qualities because they are becoming health conscious.
- Due to the fluctuating in the world prices the whole market of oil is falling.
- The upper income customers considered that oil is an old fashion.
- With the passage of time many competitors are entered into the market.
- These competitors are high risk with respect to the quality and price factors.
This examination is made reference to individually target reality and trade with staff in the midst of my entrance level position. As shown by my examination program, I have found that Human Resource and Administration division expect a key employment in an affiliation. This division set destinations and objectives of the affiliation and set up criteria, techniques, frameworks to achieve these targets. Nevertheless, the SS OIL MILLS is nonappearance of this division in its real shape. Its organization considers the HR practices as chairman and HR division and HR essential spotlight is on selection, assurance, compensation, and evaluation. That is the reason there is no qualified, capable chairman executive. The HR overseer is moreover given extra commitment of association and HR manager in view of its extraordinary working reputation. That executive generally thinks specialist’s compensation, enlistment decision and appraisal. He is furthermore to a great degree unstable for staff immediacy and remains on round after around a chance to check the working of delegates. On the other hand because of nonattendance of this office, laborers are almost no content with the business. In the midst of my stay there, I saw that there were three workplaces (HR office, Administration division and advancing and bargains office) controlled by single boss Mr. Munawar. Regardless, in view of joblessness they have to do work. There is no real leave (event) system for administrators in the business. Departmental correspondence is furthermore not through settled system.
Vision that is a critical piece of the any association through which association thought about itself later on time. We can likewise say that it is want of each association. This is the future system and it must be clear and SMART (Specific, Measureable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Framed). It is better the amount it is SMART. These future arrangement and systems are made by the best administration who dependably assume a job in the market for the survival of the firm. To accomplish their objectives they made distinctive methodologies. One of essential methodology is advertising. Great advertising is need of each association in the cutting edge world. Advertisers utilize numerous sorts of promoting apparatuses. SS OIL MILLS Limited utilized two kinds of advertising apparatus that are,
They use different advertising and promotions on TV and Cable.
They use Poster, Boarding, Banners, Hangers, Wall Clocks, Key Chains, Diaries, Calendars, Pump Flits, Brushers and Stickers.
No organization can make do without fund. In SS, budgetary division gives essential assets to Manufacture and market Vanaspati ghee/cooking oil that satisfies the client requests and needs. Vital assets are given to generation division to build up an item that takes care of the market demand. SS OIL MILL utilizes dispersion framework for smooth showcasing tasks. Merchants are delegated by the Sales and promoting division in a particular domain. At present, in excess of 100 wholesalers are working with the organization. Deals and showcasing division takes orders from these wholesalers at that point Company’s armada of transport conveys these requests/stocks to merchant with no cargo cost. Wholesalers disperse/exchange these stocks to retailers and clients in their predefined domain with help of organization’s limited time/exposure material and deals constrain. In this manner SS OIL showcases their items from the purpose of root to the point of offer even to the point of utilization through the above-determined promoting activities. SS OIL MILLS market their brands through distribution network in all cities of Southern Punjab and major cities of Upper Punjab. Distributors are appointed by observing/analyses of their financial condition and past ghee business experience. Distributors lift their stocks as per their set focus for the month. As per organization approach, organization offers a credit breaking point of 15 days from the date conveyance to merchants. Anyway wholesalers may lift stocks on money installment premise with an advantage/markdown of Rs. 5/16 Kg ghee. Mostly the company delivers these stocks thorough their fleet of transport consisting 20 Mazda & Hino trucks. Distributors resell/distribute these stocks to retailers and customers in their specified territory/market with allowed profit margin.
SS OIL MILLS give attention material (Banners, Posters, Publicity cushion/Cash notices, Calendars and Wall timekeepers) to wholesalers, utilizes huge and little sign loads up, electronic loads up and link advertisements for the advancement of their items. Organization deals agents present/advertise organization items with help of wholesalers. They speak to their organization and items. Deals agents likewise guarantee the simple accessibility organization items in the market. So this is the means by which the advertising activities of SS OIL MILLS keep running for smooth conveyance of organization items to clients.
STRUCTURE OF THE MARKETING DEPARTMENT
Sales & marketing department of SS OIL MILLS is guided and monitored by the sales &marketing manager and it works under the supervision of General Manager.
Number of Employees Working in the Marketing Department
30 employees are working in the Sales & Marketing department. The main posts are Sales & Marketing manager, Brand managers, Sales officers, Sales supervisors, Sales representatives and Sales man.
The promoting target of SS OIL MILS is essentially to advise and influence individuals. The organization utilizes print, electronic and open air media for promoting. Advertisements are Published in “The Daily Khabrain, The Daily Express and the Daily Nawa-y-Waqat” on some extraordinary events. Link publicizing is broadcasted in various urban areas of Southern Punjab or in the urban areas where the organization advertise their brands. Moreover, Modern uses enormous sign sheets, pennants, printed container flex sheets, shop sheets; Mazda/hino trucks with painting promotions and exceptional divider chalking for open air publicizing.
Future Prospects of the Organization
SS OIL MILLS has taken a successful start and is now planning to broaden their exposure having following future prospects:
- To expand their market and to penetrate more in the existing market.
- To launch media war (electronic media, print media and public relations program) on national level to create a positive company image and identity.
- To improve their quality standard by producing a uniform quality level of all major products.
Competitors of SS OIL MILLS Ltd
These are the competitors of SS OIL MILLS Ltd that are QADIR cooking oil and banaspati, HOOR cooking oil and banaspati, SUFI cooking oil and banaspati , SOYA supreme cooking oil , DALDA cooking oil and banaspati, SULTAN cooking oil and banaspati.
Finance & Accounts Department
The arrangement of finance is the basic responsibility of this department. Moreover accounts functions are also responsibility of this department. This department control all the cash related functions and banks dealing along with Government taxes.
The generation branch of the organization isn’t just to satisfy the required stock however it likewise acts like as nature of items, and control of the general task of the creation action. It centers to tie up with the work routine, quality and amount of the results.
Generation division is totally lined up with the administration office at each stage.
Introduction to Branch where I worked in Human resource Department it consist of 4 sub Sectors which are HRD, HR section, Recruitment and HRIS during my internship program work under the So many supervisors and officer.
During the internship program we briefly learn the work from all sub department of HRM in the organization, we solved cases, explores files, analyses data, screening application, learn and read different criteria’s in which organization work. Environment in the organization was so learning for us. We learn a lot under the supervision of qualified staff and managers.
Detailed Description of the operations/activities of the departments
• I began my entry level position in HR and Admin Department. This office is the foundation of administration. This division controls all the real exercises.
• Major Functions of this division are as:
• Check and control of representatives is obligation of this division. A couple of chief takes round after at times and check the working of each worker.
• This division additionally checks the working of time keeping office. The every day participation of the representative’s approaching and active planning of every worker is likewise recorded.
• This office additionally controls the general execution of the administrators and aides them where it is expected to steam line their work.
• This division likewise controls the security protects given by private security organization.
• This office likewise controls the sweeper and guarantees well and appropriate cleaning in the SS OIL MILL.
• The control of vehicles for office work and their support is additionally duty of this division.
• The managing Government Officials is a vital obligation of this division.
• This division additionally keeps record of execution of every representative. Furthermore, the motivations depend on this record of execution. The missteps are additionally recorded in the individual document of every worker.
• This office likewise masterminds wellbeing and security measures for the workers.
• The Admin division is likewise joined with HR office. So it likewise plays out the elements of HR division.
• This division indicates the obligations of the every representative. The expected set of responsibilities is given to every representative at the season of his preparation and he will undoubtedly settle his/her these capacities. Also he is exhorted not to bother or meddle others matters. On the off chance that a worker feels some issue or vagueness, he/she should illuminate to his seniors or head of office. So the issue might be resolve bitterly.
• This office likewise organizes many instructional courses to the representatives. So the representatives may comfortable with new patterns and oversee them in like manner. A few times 2-3 hours gatherings are masterminded this reason.
• This division additionally gets CV from outer intrigued hopefuls. The CV’s are checked on. On the off chance that someone cleared out then the competitors are chosen from these hopefuls.
• This office profoundly looks on each worker’s obligation and his/her reaction to the obligation. Either the worker is doing his activity and meeting his position objectives or not.
• SS OIL MILLS Ltd has modest number of changeless workers. More representatives are dealing with consistent schedule. Those are not given significantly more offices and motivating force. So the left the activity. Along these lines, this office masterminds every day compensation workers. Once in a while no opportunity is satisfied in no time and work is completed by present specialists by utilizing diverse strategies. Yet, the enlisting of these day by day compensation representatives is persistent work of this office.
• The administration of wages and pay rates of staff is the fundamental obligation of this division. More over which motivators are given to which classes of workers, this basic leadership was likewise a component of this office. Be that as it may, overseeing executive is the last specialist to settle on the choice.
• After this, I worked in Finance and Accounts division. This division is in charge of all real fund and bookkeeping activities. Some of them are:
• Arrangement of back for day by day running exercises
• Availability of assets for pay rates, wages and significant costs like power and so on Daily collection report
- Daily disbursement report
- Maintenance of ledger
- Record Keeping and filing
- Feeding of vouchers in computer software
- Reconciliation of banks
- Maintenance of creditors
- Arrangement of payments for creditors
- Maintenance of stock
- Maintenance of inventory
- Submissions of EOBI, Social security
- Payment of Govt. Taxes
- Monthly Stock Taking
- Correspondence with major parties
In the HR and Admin division I was appointed to do every day work that included watching the, checking of participation and timings of the staff. I was dole out to check the working of time keeping division and record every day participation of the representative’s approaching and active planning. I used to keep record of execution of every representative. It was my obligation to check and control the representative and takes round after at times and checked the working of each worker and reports the HR chief about their issues. I was allot to control vehicles for office work and report the HR supervisor about the support. I was relegate to check the day by day compensation laborers (security protect, sweeper and so forth.) are playing out their work legitimately. I used to visit all offices and check the execution of the specialist, if any contention were raised inside the division; I needed to illuminate the HR Manager about it. I am grateful to Mr. Munawar-ud-racket the administrator of HR and Admin office who helped me to play out every one of these employments.
The back division is a primary office which all exchange identified with fund, for example, current money exchange, gauging and planning and get ready record books on day by day for review reason. My first day in the record office, I begin manual working and given a fundamental work. In the following day I begin to turn in various head of records and getting huge measure of data through functional working. In this office I arranged Cash Receipt, Cash Payment and diary Vouchers and after that feed in the PC programming. The Finance and Accounts Manger Mr. Imtiaz Ahmed is exceptionally able individual and he helped me to play out this activity.
Organization planning strategy
By the dialog I came at that the mission of the SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted is to mind the strength of the shoppers by consistently creates and deliver quality items that meet the clients and markets requests, perfect with pertinent administrative necessities. Vision of the SS OIL MILLS (pvt) constrained is to make the best nature of the oil and oil businesses. Objectives of the SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted are to draw out the organization from budgetary emergencies and guarantee the nature of the oil at each progression of creation to mind the strength of the clients. Its will likely enhance the proficiency and lesson of the workers and to expand the piece of the overall industry and to arrange and used the wastage in better way. Key arranging of SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted needs to catch the greatest offers of the oil showcase by giving better quality to take care of the customers demand. In the contender examination the organization see that how might they take edge over their rivals. To the extent the contenders of SS OIL MILLS (pvt) constrained are worried there are numerous contenders of SS OIL MILLS in ghee advertise. Organization is getting aggressive edge by spotlights on client’s wellbeing and delivering quality items that meet the clients’ prerequisites.
Decision making process:
Settling on a decent choice by reliably can acquire achievement association. At the departmental level administrators of the SS OIL MILLS (pvt) take choices yet for the huge venture choices are taken by the overseeing chief of the SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted.
In SS OIL MILLS (Pvt) Limited four divisions are build up and their working freely. According to my examination they are arranging their day by day schedule work effetely. Anyway before settling on any sort of basic choice, concern office chief arrange with overseeing executive.
Chain of command
Assistant Admin officer
There are 20 workers under HR & Admin Department. Their breakup is as:
Admin Officer 1
Assistant Admin officer 1
Centralization / decentralization
SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted pursue the example of decentralization aside from the situations where centralization is required. Top administration plans a general strategy for the organization, and after that the offices and divisions from their very own procedures as indicated by that approach and the methodologies are conveyed to customers and administration, they are allowed to utilize techniques to accomplish that objective subject to the parameters of different laws overseeing the matter of organization.
In SS OIL MILLS (Pvt) Limited works are overseen effetely all staff significantly higher administration have finish detail set of working responsibilities. All Standard Operating Procedures are composed and properly endorsed by higher administration (overseeing executive).
Managing change & innovation
The organization has an administration segment headed by Mr. Munawar. The office has the best warnings in it that have a considerable measure of understanding. They generally set the last 2 or 3 years execution before them and in meeting of top managerial staff and the senior administration staff investigation it and afterward settle on choice for the following year plane.
Managing IT and communication
IT is the key concern now day as each one of the affiliations depend upon it. They for the most part hand-off on it. Taint they have a DATA BASE behind it. Whole the work is being performed on that DATA BASE. With the objective that the security is the most concern. Consequently we use fire divider plans and intruder ready systems mystery key anchored customers with the objective that no unconcerned individual could access to the data base or other information. Likewise we have programming fashioners and the hard item master to think about the whole IT frameworks.
Administration style that is utilizing in the SS OIL MILLS (pvt) constrained Authoritarian or imperious. Be that as it may, at the departmental level majority rule style of administration is being utilized.
Power and politics
Power that is utilizing in SS OIL MILLS constrained authentic. Since organization’s representatives are remunerated on great execution and rebuffed on awful execution and the legislative issues strategic maneuvers a job, for example, in the activity days whose are the relations with upper experts they are effectively chosen other are do nothing and furthermore in the event of any mix-up/issue each division chief endeavor to fault other whether it’s their blame or not.
In the SS OIL MILLS (pvt) obliged, laborers are moved by giving them affirmation or interest (when delegate achieved something the affirmation is appreciation for that achievement.), compensates that is basic pay of their multi month, progression, by training and giving them getting ready. In this association agents are impelled by giving them thankfulness letter.
SS OIL MILLS (pvt) constrained maintained with the mindful and particular methodology while going out on a limb administration and quality affirmation administration. SS OIL MILLS embraced all-encompassing methodology.
Each branch of SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted has its own standard as indicated by SS OIL MILLS (pvt) principles and controls. Enhance quality and assembling process. Notwithstanding PSQCA, the organization is likewise actualizing quality in assembling process.
Controlling of operations
Activities are being controlled by all the specific laborers in the SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted. Generation administrator controls of the general task of the creation movement. It centers to tie up with the work routine, quality and amount of the results.
Controlling of performance
The execution of SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted ought to be assessed with reference to social duty and lawful edge work. Produce process and specialists proficiency has been checked by the director of SS OIL MILLS (pvt) restricted.
Controlling of information/knowledge
Data assumes a fundamental job in the accomplishment of any association. SS OIL MILLS restricted dependably endeavor to stay up with the latest with the present circumstance of the market and government new approaches. In the wake of knowing the new data supervisor applies those principles and controls in the organization. That data is vital for supervisor, their representatives and furthermore for the organization.
In my perspective, the inner setup and working example isn’t sufficient all around created with respect to the administration. There is absence of some administration capacities like arranging, sorting out, driving and controlling. This kind of thing comes in vital arranging. In this way, in general organization should center on key arranging in which every one of these things come. Be that as it may, to the outer condition, the organization has all around rumored picture in general society. It is by all accounts functioning admirably as indicated by the market circumstance. It had caught a vast volume of piece of the overall industry. One good thing is that they know how to make and hold clients as indicated by market incline. Thus, they listen clients gripes and fathomed them on need premise. They put stock in quality not amount. Organization is particularly cognizant about the fulfillment of the clients and their quality item. All the staff of the organization is additionally exceptionally helpful to the client and work with coordination for better quality.
- Organization is doing great its business. Be that as it may, there is constantly requirement for development in each framework.
- In this way, I propose following proposals for the organization. On the off chance that the organization receives them, I figure it can build organization income.
- They should have separate office for advertising, deals, HR, and organization
- A worker well-disposed condition must be made. In this way, worker’s little oversights ought to be overlooked.
- A site is extremely important for organization now daily. As all other ghee organizations are giving web based booking office to the clients.
- Timeliness of laborers and solid correspondence between offices must be guaranteed.
- Free battle about the affirmation of item.
- Bundling style is old and should be changed (like Dalda has as of late presented an oil bottle with intelligent highlights).
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|MEMOS VERSUS E-MAIL:MESSAGES|
|Destination||Internal: correspondence written to coworkers within a company||Internal and external: correspondence written to friends and acquaintances, coworkers within a company, and clients and vendors.|
|Format||Identification lines: Date, To, From, Subject. Options include cc (complimentary copy), Ref (reference), and distribution (other recipients of the memo).||Identification lines: To and subject. The Date and From is computer generated. Options include cc (complimentary copy), Ref (reference), and Distribution (other recipients of the e-mail message).|
|Audience||Generally specialist and semi specialist within the company.||Multiple readers due to the internal and external nature of e-mail.|
|Topics||Company related, allowing for abbreviations and acronyms due to well informed audience.||A wide range of diverse topics determined by the audience.|
|Tone||Determined by audience: can be informal when written to coworkers; might be more formal when written to management.||A wide range of tones due diverse audience. Usually informal when written to friends informal to coworkers, more formal to management. The largest involves multicultural readers.|
|Speed or Delivery time||Determined by a company’s in-house mail procedures. Memos could be delivered within hours or days.||Often instantaneous, usually within minutes. Delays can be caused by system malfunctions or excessively large attachments.|
|Attachments||Hard-copy attachment can be stapled to a memo or enclosed within an envelope Size is not an issue. Complimentary copies can be sent to other readers by way of the company’s mail system.||Computer word processing files, HTML files and Web links, PDF files, or downloadable graphics can be attached to e-mail. Complimentary copies can be sent to other readers. Size of the file is an issue, because large documents can crash a reader’s system. A good rule of thumb is to limit files to 750 kilobytes (k).|
|Length||A typical memo is no longer than one printed page (81/2× 11 inches).||An effective e-mail message is limited to one viewable screen (requiring no scrolling)|
|Security||If a company’s mail delivery system is reliable, the memo will be secure. Memos can be delivered within a sealed envelope. No one else will see the memo unless the reader or writer shares it.||E-mail systems are not secure. E-mail can be tampered with, read by others. And sent to many people. E-mail stays within a company’s computer backup system and is the property of the company. Therefore, e-mail is not private|
- Recruitment Mechanisms in Pakistan
• Institutional Arrangements
• In the 1970s, the Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment (BE&OE) was setup to boost labor emigration, and also to regulate and control the recruitment process in the country
• BE&OE functions through its seven regional offices, called Protector of Emigrants, located in Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, Quetta, Malakand and Multan.
- Channels of Labor Recruitment
Legally, Pakistanis can find overseas employment through public, private and direct channels or sectors.
• Public Sector: Overseas Employment Corporation (OEC).
• Private Sector: Overseas Employment Promoters (OEPs).
• Direct Visa.
- Recruitment through Overseas Employment Promoters
An OEP applies to the concerned Protector of Emigrants for permission to process the demand.
• OEP is required to advertise the demand specifying the number of persons, categories, wages and other terms and conditions
• Prepares a FSA on behalf of the employer and approach the Protector of Emigrants for registration.
• Briefing by the protector of emigrants.
- Recruitment through OEPs
OEPs work through sub-agents when recruiting from rural areas, particularly semi-skilled or skilled workers.
• Many friends/relatives with migration experience also play the role of a sub-agent in the migration process.
• Prospective migrants, prefer their mediation through local agents because of close contacts • One agent (sub-agent) who keeps the passport for long period.
- Illegal Migration
Overstaying after Hajj/Umra or after the expiry of contract,
• Local agents organize a group of prospective migrants to take the risk of crossing border without documents by using sea and dry routes (Irani Border).
• High Cost of legal Migration as the main reason for illegal migration.
- Working Conditions Abroad
- Re-signing of Contract While Abroad.
• Migrants are usually unaware about the contract they are signing.
• In the new contract salary is usually 8-10 percent low.
• Medical test upon arrival at destination and re-assessment of skill level are also getting common.
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The year was 2008. There had been talking of Android phones. You yearned for a Moto RAZR while wondering what this gossip about iPhone 3G is. Mobile internet was mostly 2G –whatever that means– and expensive. Fast forward to a couple of years, and phones with touch screens and faster processors are coming out. Flip phones? Ha. You prefer the slick aesthetic of the iPhone 5 now, and 4G is what’s hot as you swipe your way through social media.
Life passes by fast with a smartphone in your hand. Hold up – is it 2020 already? Are we working on 5G networks now? Technology moves fast for sure.
What exactly is this not-so-new 5G technology? We have been hearing about it for quite some time now. How different is it in comparison to 4G? To begin with, the “G” in the name refers to the latest “generation” of wireless technology. Many of the previous mobile network generations have been distinct because of their data transferring speeds.
However, they are also incompatible with the one before them due to gaps in “air interfaces”. This refers to the specifics of transmission such as frequencies that make up a spectrum.
Table of Contents
- Let’s Recap
- How Does 5G Works?
- Low, Middle, and High 5G Bands
To start from the beginning, a cellular or mobile network consists of areas with stations that make up a communication network. Sounds simple enough, right? Except that the last communicative link of the mobile network is wireless. Areas divided into “cells” have at least one minimum cell site or transceivers known as transmitters or base stations.
With these stations, the “cell” becomes part of network coverage and transmits content like voice calls and other data. A cell usually employs a unique range of frequencies or spectrum to differ from neighboring cells. This prevents interference and maintains the quality of the cell’s service.
Cell phones use radio waves to transmit signals for making calls via a base station or tower. Altogether, cells make a mobile network that covers a large area. Thus, portable devices capable of receiving signals can communicate with each other in the network.
The first or 1G networks were analog cellular technology. 2G followed, with technologies like GSM and CDMA, making up the first digital cellular network technology generation. Next came 3G (UMTS, EVDO, and HSPA) with speeds ranging from 200 kilobits per second (kbps) to several megabits per second (Mbps).
Currently, we have 4G networks, with LTE (or Long-Term Evolution) as the most common. It works on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, or OFDM, which splits one data stream over multiple frequencies for faster transmission. 4G networks provide even gigabit (GB) level speeds. Scaling up from 4G, 5G will be much faster than 4G. It will transmit up to 20 Gbps at its peak, and over 100 Mbps on average.
How Does 5G Works?
Similar to LTE, 5G also works on the OFDM principle. A 5G mobile network also uses a cell site network and relays data via radio waves like other generations of cellular networks. However, compared to LTE the air interface of 5G operates on increased flexibility and lowers the latency.
The latter means there will be shorter delays before data transmission begins, making for a faster experience. The more efficient encoding design translates into roughly 30 percent-improved speeds despite using the same airwaves as 4G. This works by fitting 5G to work with larger channels than the ones used by 4G. While 4G frequency channels are largely 20 MHz (combined into 160MHz), 5G channels go all the way up to 100MHz. Now at this point, the short-distance higher millimeter-wave frequencies are necessary.
While other networks like 4G or television stations occupy lower frequencies, there are plenty of vacant higher frequencies available around the world for 5G. Think of these as large “roads” made for network carrier’s high-speed internet.
The average 5G networks require smarter designing to handle increasing cells – possibly with wider bandwidths and enhanced antennas. 5G aims for higher speeds and capacity per area, all at much lower latency. For the average home user, it means increased capacity, better upload/download speeds, and connecting more devices.
Low, Middle, and High 5G Bands
When it comes to airwaves, 5G provides mobile network carriers with more options than 4G. As 5G can operate on all frequencies (spectrum), the 5G experience boils down to the number and width of channels.
• Low-Band 5G Spectrum:
It works with frequencies under 1GHz. As the oldest available telecommunication frequencies, they have greater coverage. However, the channels are narrower, with most operating 4G. Low-band 5G has slower speeds with carriers running an average of 10 MHz in width. To be more accurate, it is like 4G for now.
• Mid-Band 5G Spectrum:
This 5G spectrum operates in a range of 1 to 10 GHz. This includes most mobile and Wi-Fi frequencies, along with those frequencies slightly higher.
• High-Band 5G Spectrum:
This is the latest 5G network, including airwaves from 20-100 GHz. However, it has the least coverage. Currently, low-band 5G is not compatible with high-band 5G, so you won’t find phones capable of handling both yet! The first crop of 5G-supporting phones works with either one or the other 5G system.
To wrap things up, the move to 5G will certainly transform the way we work with technology every day. The move to 5G will not happen overnight, as things still need smoothing out. Whether at work or play, faster broadband speeds and higher user capacity will benefit everyone. 5G is at last transforming into reality after nearly a decade of development.
Apple today released iOS and iPadOS 13.4.1, minor updates that come two weeks after the release of iOS and iPadOS 13.4, major updates that introduced iCloud Folder Sharing, a new Mail toolbar, trackpad support for the iPad, and more.http://www.fiverr.com/s2/ef5948cae2
The iOS and iPadOS 13.4.1 updates are available on all eligible devices over-the-air in the Settings app. To access the updates, go to Settings > General > Software Update.
The update addresses an issue that prevented devices running iOS 13.4 from participating in FaceTime calls with devices running iOS 9.3.6 and earlier or OS X El Capitan 10.11.6 and earlier. It also fixes a bug in the settings app that could cause choosing Bluetooth from the quick actions menu on the Home screen to fail.
Discovered shortly after the release of iOS 13.4 and macOS 10.15.4, the FaceTime issue prevented iPhones, iPads, and Macs running these updates from making or receiving FaceTime calls from older devices that aren’t able to upgrade, such as the iPad 2, third-generation iPad, iPhone 4S, the first-generation iPad mini, and the fifth-generation iPod touch.
It wasn’t clear if the problem was caused by a bug or was intentional, but the fix included in today’s update clarifies that Apple did not mean to remove the option for devices running iOS 13.4 to communicate with older devices. Full release notes for the iOS 13.4.1 update are below:
iOS 13.4.1 includes bug fixes for your iPhone.
– Fixes an issue where devices running iOS 13.4 could not participate in FaceTime calls with devices running iOS 9.3.6 and earlier or OS X El Capitan 10.11.6 and earlier.
– Addresses a bug with the Settings app where choosing a Bluetooth from the quick actions menu on the Home screen would fail.
The iPadOS 13.4.1 update fixes the same two issues, but also addresses a third bug that could cause the flashlight not to turn on on the new 11 and 12.9-inch iPad Pro models after the Flashlight button in Control Center or the Lock screen is tapped.
iOS 13.4.1 could be one of the last updates to the iOS 13 operating system as Apple prepares to transition work to iOS 14. There will be at least one additional update, though, as Apple is already beta testing iOS 13.4.5.