- Recruitment Mechanisms in Pakistan
• Institutional Arrangements
• In the 1970s, the Bureau of Emigration and Overseas Employment (BE&OE) was setup to boost labor emigration, and also to regulate and control the recruitment process in the country
• BE&OE functions through its seven regional offices, called Protector of Emigrants, located in Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, Quetta, Malakand and Multan.
- Channels of Labor Recruitment
Legally, Pakistanis can find overseas employment through public, private and direct channels or sectors.
• Public Sector: Overseas Employment Corporation (OEC).
• Private Sector: Overseas Employment Promoters (OEPs).
• Direct Visa.
- Recruitment through Overseas Employment Promoters
An OEP applies to the concerned Protector of Emigrants for permission to process the demand.
• OEP is required to advertise the demand specifying the number of persons, categories, wages and other terms and conditions
• Prepares a FSA on behalf of the employer and approach the Protector of Emigrants for registration.
• Briefing by the protector of emigrants.
- Recruitment through OEPs
OEPs work through sub-agents when recruiting from rural areas, particularly semi-skilled or skilled workers.
• Many friends/relatives with migration experience also play the role of a sub-agent in the migration process.
• Prospective migrants, prefer their mediation through local agents because of close contacts • One agent (sub-agent) who keeps the passport for long period.
- Illegal Migration
Overstaying after Hajj/Umra or after the expiry of contract,
• Local agents organize a group of prospective migrants to take the risk of crossing border without documents by using sea and dry routes (Irani Border).
• High Cost of legal Migration as the main reason for illegal migration.
- Working Conditions Abroad
- Re-signing of Contract While Abroad.
• Migrants are usually unaware about the contract they are signing.
• In the new contract salary is usually 8-10 percent low.
• Medical test upon arrival at destination and re-assessment of skill level are also getting common.